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NUR 510 Nursing Theory and Research: Additional Sources & Assistance

Evidence Based Nursing Practice

More Information on Formulating PICO Questions

Forming Focused Questions with PICO A tutorial created by University of North Carolina Chapel Hill  Health Sciences Library for learning how to form questions using the PICO framework. Includes case studies and question examples.

Stillwell SB, Fineout-Overholt E, Melnyk BM, Williamson KM. Evidence-Based Practice, Step by Step: Asking the Clinical Question: A Key Step in Evidence-Based Practice.  American Journal of Nursing 2010 March; 110(3):58-61. This article provides background information on why the use of PICO question is important in Evidence Based Practice. It looks at the different types, formats, scenarios and creation of the PICO question. The article also includes a template for creating a PICO.

Essentials of nursing research : appraising evidence for nursing practice / Denise F. Polit, Cheryl Tatano Beck.  8th ed.   Philadelphia : Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, [2014].   This resource focuses on nursing research as a whole, but provides the framework and key concepts of how PICO questions function. See pages 29-31 in Chapter 2 for information on PICO questions. Portions of this book are available online via Google books. 

Articles & Guides

Duke University Medical Center Library's guide to EBM  

Minsoo Kang, Brian G Ragan, Jae-Hyeon Park. Issues in Outcomes Research: An Overview of Randomization Techniques for Clinical Trials.  J Athl Train. 2008 Mar-Apr; 43(2): 215–221