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APA Guide 7th ed.

Citing Personal Communications such as Interviews, Emails, etc. (pp. 259-260)

Reference List

According to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed., "Because readers cannot retrieve the information in personal communications, personal communications are not included in the references list; they are cited in the text only" (p. 260).

Personal communications include:

  • emails
  • text messages
  • online chats
  • direct messages
  • personal interviews (does not included published interviews)
  • phone conversations
  • live speeches
  • unrecorded classroom lectures
  • memos
  • letters
  • messages from nonarchived discussion groups

Be sure to check with your professor at JU when citing interviews, emails, or other personal communicationsYour professor may ask you to list personal communications in your references list, even though it is not required in APA format.



Cite personal communication in-text when you refer to them in your paper:

Example 1: A. A. Ford (personal communication, January 21, 2020) asserts that teaching is a difficult but rewarding profession.

Example 2: "Teaching is a difficult but rewarding profession" (A. A. Ford, personal communication, January 21, 2020).