In-text citations have been simplified; all in-text citations for works with three or more authors are shortened to the name of the first author plus "et al." (In the 6th edition, six or more authors were required before using et al.)
Include the DOI for print and electronic books (if available)
For electronic books, the phrase "retrieved from" (used in 6th ed.) is no longer used in 7th ed.
The [video file] element has changed to [video] in the 7th ed.
Include the publisher in your audio visual citation (was not required in the 6th ed.)
The phrase "retrieved from" (used in 6th ed.) is no longer used in 7th ed.
DOIs and URLs:
The presentation of DOIs and URLs has been standardized. Both are presented as hyperlinks
The label "DOI:" is no longer used
The words "Retrieved from" are only used when a retrieval date is also needed.
If your source does not have a DOI and your list of references will only be viewed by the JU community, your professor may ask you to use the permanent link for electronic sources (books and articles). Click here to learn more about permanent links.
If your source does not have a DOI and your list of references will be viewed outside of the JU community, do not include the permanent link for electronic sources (books and articles). Permanent links can only be viewed by the JU community.
Include the DOI for print and electronic books and articles. Here at JU, an electronic book or article from a library database (EBSCO, ProQuest, etc.) may or may not have a DOI listed. Your professor may request that you include the article's permanent link.